From Nuhfer, E. B., Blodgett,  M., Fleisher, S., Griffin, J., Supporting Non-tenure Faculty with Time- and Cost-effective Faculty Development, 2010, Metropolitan Universities, in press

Faculty developers are the primary professionals who work to promote the skills and better connections between instructors and students. Skills instructors can acquire that yield proven benefits in producing better learning include

  1. Incorporating interactive engagement methods (Cabrera, Crissman, Bernal, Nora, Terenzini, and Pascarella, 2002; Hake, 1998; Johnson, Johnson, and Smith, 1998; Millis, and Cottell, 1998, Springer, Stanne, and Donovan, 1999)
  2. Promoting discussion (Murray and Lang, 1997)
  3. Improving clarity and organization (Feldman, 2007; Hines, Cruickshank, and Kennedy, 1985)
  4. Perceiving the importance of the affective domain to learning (Damasio, 1999; Rhem, 2008; Zander and Zander, 2000)
  5. Employing a developmental framework of adult reasoning into course and curricular planning (Fink, 2003; Hoare, 2006; Journal of Adult Development, 2004; King and Kitchener, 1994; Perry, 1999)
  6. Constructing and using rubrics (Stevens and Levi, 2005)
  7. Incorporating student self-assessment (Alverno College Faculty, 2000)
  8. Understanding evaluation and grading (Marzano, 2000; Mezeske and Mezeske, 2007; Walvoord and Anderson, 2009)
  9. Doing assessment in order to monitor results of one's efforts (Angelo and Cross, 1993; Maki, 2004)
  10.  Acquiring an informed, practical model of how the adult brain functions during learning (Leamnson, 1999; Zull, 2002).
  11. Employing diagnostic instruments and consultations (Penny and Coe, 2004).

Alverno College Faculty. (2000). Self assessment at Alverno College. G. Loacker (Ed.), Milwaukee, WI: Alverno College.


Angelo, T. A. & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Cabrera, A., Crissman, J., Bernal, E., Nora, A., Terenzini, P. & Pascarella, E. (2002). Collaborative learning: Its impact on college students’ development and diversity. Journal of College Student Development, 43(1), 20–34.


California State University Institute for Teaching and Learning. (2009). Center pieces: Profiles of the faculty teaching, learning and professional development centers of the California State University. 401 Golden Shore, 6th Floor, Long Beach, CA.


Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt.


Feldman, K. A. (2007). Identifying exemplary teachers and teaching: Evidence from student ratings. In R. P. Perry & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education: An evidence-based approach. (pp. 93-129). Netherlands: Springer.


Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Hake, R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics, 66(1), 64–74.


Hines, C. V., Cruickshank, D. R. & Kennedy, J. J. (1985). Teacher clarity and its relationship to student achievement and satisfaction. American Educational Research Journal, 22, 87-99.


Hoare, C. (Ed.) (2006). Handbook of adult development and learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Johnson, D., Johnson, R. & Smith, K. (1998). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom (2nd ed.). Edina, MN: Interaction Book.


Journal of Adult Development. (2004). Special volume of nine papers on the Perry legacy of cognitive development. Journal of Adult Development, 11(2), 59-161. Germantown, NY: Periodicals Service Co.


King, P. M. & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J. H. & Whitt, J. (2005). Assessing conditions to enhance educational effectiveness: The inventory for student engagement and success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Leamnson, R. (1999). Thinking about teaching and learning: Developing habits of learning with first year college and university students. Sterling, VA: Stylus Press.


Maki, P. (2004). Assessing for learning: Building a sustainable commitment across the institution. Sterling, VA: Stylus Press.


Marzano, R. J. (2000). Transforming classroom grading. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Mezeske, R. J., and Mezeske, B. A., (Eds.), (2007). Beyond tests and quizzes: Creative assessments in the college classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Millis, B. J. & Cottell, P.G. (1998). Cooperative learning for higher education faculty. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.


Murray, H. & Lang, M. (1997, Feb.). Does classroom participation improve student learning? Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20, 7–9.


Penny A. R. & Coe, R. (2004). Effectiveness of consultation on student ratings feedback: a meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research 74(2) 215–253.


Perry, W. G. Jr. (1999). Forms of ethical and intellectual development in the college years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (a reprint of the original 1968 work with minor updating).


Rhem, J. (Ed). (2008). The affect issue. National Teaching and Learning Forum 17(2).


Springer, L., Stanne, M. E. & Donovan, S. S. (1999). Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 69, 21-51.


Stevens, D. D., and Levi, A. J.,(2005). Introduction to rubrics. Sterling, VA: Stylus.


Walvoord, B. E. & Anderson, V. J. (2009). Effective grading: A tool for learning and assessment (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Zander, R. S. & Zander, B. (2000). The art of possibility: Transforming professional and personal Life: Harvard Business School Press.


Zull, J. E. (2002). The art of changing the brain. Sterling, VA. Stylus Press.